PDF On Aristotle On Sense Perception (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)

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The excess which contributes to the perceptibility of the whole body of which it is part is not actually perceptible on its own but is potentially perceptible in the sense that it makes the aforesaid contribution. Reading meros tou for meros autou in ,13 Wendland. Diodorus Cronus, who was active around BC, was an. He will describe another and this is more authoritative.

Although there are no invisible magnitudes, he nevertheless says a that nothing prevents a. He says: air and water, the media of hearing and smell, through which hearing and smelling come about when are affected and moved by the perceptibles, are continuous in the same way as each other, water clearly with water and air with air for bodies, and just as air is continuous with itself so water is too , but the movements which come about in them come about in a manner involving division into parts and.

In his work On Sense Perception , Aristotle discusses the material conditions of perception, starting with the sense organs and moving to the material basis of colour, flavour and odour. His Pythagorean account of hues as a ratio of dark to light was enthusiastically endorsed by Goethe against Newton as being true to the painter's experience.

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Aristotle finishes with three problems about continuity. First, in what sense are indefinitely small colour patches or colour variations perceptible? Secondly, which perceptible leap discontinuously like light to fill a whole space, which have to reach one point before another; and do observers of the latter perceive the same thing if they are at different distances? Thirdly, how does the central sense permit genuinely simultaneous, rather than staggered, perception of different objects? On the MS tradition of the Parva nat.

At In De sensu 4. The two learned mss are Laur. A few descendants of Par. For their stemmatics relative to Sens. On the two medieval corpora, see Dod , 50— As noted by Freudenthal , 81 n1. A pronounced exponent of this view is Freudenthal , but see already Albert the Great, De sompno et vigilia 1. Put forward in Ross , 3—18 , against Nuyens , —; — , who argued that Parva nat. For discussion, see Morel , , 71— See also below, p. For a qualified defence of a developmental interpretation of the relationship between the De an.

Moreover, Aristotle denies that pleasure is itself perceptible Eth. VII 12, a12— It has been argued Bostock , esp. Conversely, however, Aristotle does seem to accept that there can be no faculty of sense perception without the faculty of pleasure and pain De an.

Aristotle on Relation, Perception, and Knowledge (Categories, c.7) - Philosophy Core Concepts

Nor does any of the treatises contain any sustained discussion of the principles of medicine with Sens. Alexander of Aphrodisias In De sensu 6. Van der Eijk , 69 n67 also entertains this possibility. See Nussbaum , 9—10 and n27 ; van der Eijk , 69—70 n67 ; Rashed ; Johansen , n4 ; Morel , 26— He insists—on good Aristotelian authority cf.

De part. He makes no other express statement on the position of the De part. This might seem to speak in favour of a position immediately after the De mot. Unfortunately, however, the commentary on the De somno refers back to both De gen.

Perhaps, then, the order in which this whole series of commentaries is enumerated at the end of In Parva nat. The resulting sequence would be: De part. Of course, this is also very close to the order suggested by the brief recapitulation at the end of the De motu an.

On Theophrastus's "On Sense Perception" and On Aristotle's "On the Soul 2.5-2.12"

Brams , — argued forcefully in favour of the hypothesis that the note is a translation of a Greek scholion. In a third step, Parva nat.


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The inquiries pursued in the Parva naturalia are not part of this project. I should perhaps emphasize that even if it is correct, as I have suggested, that the subject matter of the Parva naturalia is not just a proper subset of psychic activities, namely those that also involve a body, but any kind of psychic activity that falls within the domain of natural philosophy which all necessarily involve a body , it does not follow that Aristotle denies the possibility of any psychic activity exercised in separation from a living organism, for there may be a kind of soul that does not belong to nature as affirmed in De part.

Still, no inquiry by Aristotle into this kind of psychic activity has been handed down and none is mentioned in the ancient lists of his works. English translation in Towey In this, English translators of Aristotle have followed Alexander. On the De spiritu and the Problemata as well as a few other Hellenistic works, see Sharples On the De spiritu , see also the translation with introduction and commentary by Bos and Ferwerda , who are inclined to accept it as a genuine work by Aristotle, and, most recently, Gregoric and Lewis , who present a raft of terminological as well as doctrinal evidence against its Aristotelian authorship, and Lewis and Gregoric , who suggest a date in the early third century BCE.

On the De coloribus and the De audibilibus , which deal mainly with the physical substrata of the relevant sense objects, see Gottschalk , ; Papari A useful discussion is found in Hadot , 85—90 , although, as noted below, I disagree with her about the status of the De anima according to Olympiodorus.

Alexander also once refers to previous commentators on the De sensu in the plural In De sensu Moraux , — The paraphrases edited by Wendland in CAG 5. When Alexander refers, at De anima For examples of the use of the Parva naturalia in the late antique exegesis of the De anima , see van der Eijk and Hulskamp , esp. The commentary on the De gen. Wendland , xix enumerates De part.

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In his Physics commentary 2. According to Alexander it is the same method as in the preceding works, that is, one which combines an empirical inquiry into the facts with a demonstrative account of the causes of these facts. Philoponus In Meteor. Olympiodorus, on the other hand In Meteor.

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Philoponus In De an. This passage was to have considerable impact on the Renaissance debate over the nature of Aristotelian psychology: see Bakker The last point is also made by Philoponus, In De an. Olympiodorus expressly says that the whole course comprises six inquiries. The Meteorology itself is the fourth in order In Meteor. The Solutiones were edited by Bywater in Supplementum aristotelicum 1. They are briefly discussed and summarized in De Haas On the exile of the Neoplatonists and its background, see Cameron , — There are other excerpts from Solutiones 2—3 in Speculum naturale 23, ch.

The commentaries on Parva nat. Venice: Girolamo Scoto, Edition in Wendland a. Printed editions are available for the part on the De somno , by Drossaart Lulofs , for the part on the De memoria , by Bloch , and for the part on the De divinatione , by D emetracopoulos in this volume ch. The part on the De divinatione has been reedited by D emetracopoulos for this volume ch. The Rampur codex was discovered by Hans Daiber. A full critical edition is being prepared by Rotraud Hansberger. Shields For the gloss on the De sensu , see Galle ; for that on the De memoria , see Brumberg-Chaumont See also Long , 13— As noted above p.

Thurot , Alexander, In De sensu 4. One might suspect that the universal practice of dealing with the activities and affections of the sensitive soul before those of the vegetative soul and with animals before plants rested solely on the fact that the De sensu was evidently conceived of by Aristotle as the first treatise in the series, but commentators such as Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas went out of their way to justify the standard order see De Leemans , —; — The debate about the relationship between natural philosophy and medicine had of course begun centuries earlier: see French , who quotes ibid.

For this and a general discussion of attitudes to medicine in natural philosophers and to natural philosophy in physicians of the sixteenth century, see Schmitt On the teaching of natural philosophy at Padua, see Grendler , — A Greek edition of both these texts by Vittore Trincavelli was published at Venice in On the reception of Simplicius in the Renaissance, see Steel and Ritups , 28— On the reception both of Simplicius and of Themistius, see also Mahoney An overview of relatively recent literature on late scholasticism and its relationship to early modern philosophy is found in Edwards For a comparison of Aristotelian and Cartesian psychology, see Alanen On Descartes and the Conimbricenses, see Des Chene For a general account of the Coimbran commentary on the De anima , see de Carvalho On the inclusion of anatomical themes in Jesuit commentaries on the De anima and other psychological texts, see Edwards , esp.

For an attempt at resolving the apparent tension between the rule and the practice, see Sander The following quotation from Beare , 1—2 , later Regius Professor of Greek at Trinity College Dublin, the author of a learned monograph on ancient theories of perception and the man behind the Oxford Translation of Parva nat. Aristotle] the principle of life as well as of mind.

J. A. Towey, Alexander of Aphrodisias On Aristotle On Sense Perception - PhilPapers

Accordingly, his work was intended to cover the whole ground now divided between Biology, Physiology, and Psychology. From the outset of the De Anima a tendency may be observed on his part to pursue now one, now the other, of two more and more divergent lines, the first leading him to Metaphysics, the second to Physiology. For a while he struggles against this tendency, but in the end yields, more or less completely, to the metaphysical bias.

In De An. On the 18th—19th-century debate over the extent to which Aristotle was really a systematic taxonomist, see Meyer , 36— See also Gotthelf , — See Brucker —, 1: — ; Tiedemann —, 2: — ; Buhle —, 2: — ; Tennemann —, 3: — See also Ferrarin , — It was not only in Germany that Aristotelian psychology was being linked to contemporary scientific and philosophical concerns. Hamilton also credited the Stagirite, not with inventing, but at least with consistently upholding the distinction between primary and secondary qualities ibid.

Schleiermacher was no expert on Aristotle, and not very sympathetically disposed, as is amply demonstrated by his lectures on the history of philosophy, posthumously edited by Heinrich Ritter Schleiermacher , — , on which see Menn , 97 n7. Vols 2. In turn, Trendelenburg gave the memorial address for Brandis on Leibniz Day the yearly ceremonial meeting of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences See also Fugali On his Aristotelianism and its historical context, see Petersen , — ; Beiser , 16— On the epistemological debates in the field of tension between empirical psychology and philosophical rationalism in the early 19th century, see Sachs-Hombach , — For a general presentation with some omissions of 19th-century editions and translations of Aristotle, see Hecquet-Devienne a , b.

Published as a separate fascicle of vol. Publication of the whole volume was delayed until See e. A study of the textual transmission of the De insomniis is found in Escobar For a discussion of some contributions to the study of Aristotelian biology in the s, see Grene For an overview see Lennox , To the literature referenced in these works, add Charles and Caston In the present context it is interesting to note that whereas one party to the controversy has invoked the preface to the De sensu in support of their claim that sense perception being common to the soul and the body must be accounted for in terms of both physical change and psychic activity Nussbaum and Putnam , 41—42 , their opponents have tried to recruit John Philoponus, Thomas Aquinas and Franz Brentano for the cause of spiritualism Burnyeat , This introduction was written with the support of Riksbankens Jubileumsfond.

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Open Access. First Online: 26 September Download chapter PDF. In this inquiry, Aristotle says, the results of the preceding discussion must be assumed. This is how the new inquiry begins: It is clear that the main attributes of animals, both those that are common [to all] and those that are peculiar [to some], are common to the soul and the body, for instance, sense perception, memory, spiritedness, appetite and desire in general, and besides these pleasure and pain.

The English and Latin titles of these treatises used in the present volume are as follows:.

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Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle On Sense Perception

One must go to the first paragraph of the De anima to see the significance of the remark, in the De sensu , about common attributes a7—10 : Our aim is to grasp and recognize its [sc. This syllabus in nuce mentions the subject matter both of the De anima —nature and essence of the soul—and the Parva naturalia —attributes of the soul. The so-called Cursus Conimbricensis , a five-volume set of Aristotelian textbooks for the genre, see Schmitt first published by the Jesuit College of Arts at the University of Coimbra between and and subsequently in over a hundred editions world-wide, 71 would seem to be a case in point.