Manual Fortress Europe

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The ship was carrying people, of them under 18, who were mainly travelling on their own.

Think Fortress Europe is the Answer to Migration? Get Real

Since the beginning of the year, Spain has already rescued around dinghies, transporting around 6, people; and from January to March, people have been registered as losing their lives in transit. During , the number of people assisted grew considerably compared to the previous year, a projection that is set to continue during In the first part of this year alone, there has already been a 38 percent increase in the number of people arriving on Spanish shores.

The refugees that arrive in Europe come from poor regions, where misery predominates and wars have caused destruction and chaos. The huge amount of money paid to mafia organisations who facilitate the voyages, and the conditions, treatment, and materials used by these gangsters, make travelling very costly and hazardous, even before embarking. The International Organisation for Migration IOM published reports where it exposed the emergence of a slave market in Libya: a clear example of the dangers posed.

In Spain, NGOs have denounced many times over the conduct of the authorities in the treatment of refugees, a criticism that could also apply to the European Union as a whole. The decision was a product of the new government, formed towards the end of May , and composed of the populist 5 Star Movement and the ultra-right League. The interior minister and leader of League, Matteo Salvini, used the occasion presented by the Aquarius episode to promote his ideas.

In , the EU agreed to the redistribution of , migrants from Italy and Greece to other countries within the union, a plan that ended in with a mere 17 percent completion.

Macron's hypocrisy is palpable given his own record of racist comments. Nevertheless, Macron represents the decline of liberalism, which on the one hand sheds crocodile tears for the human catastrophe that is the mass migration of refugees, and on the other hand, in practice, acts against the refugees to safeguard the interests of the big capitalists and bankers. The EU's scandalous deal with Turkey in is a clear example of this. The interior minister, Horst Seehofer, demanded a hard stance and managed to force an ultimatum with a two-week deadline on Merkel.

Asian Dub Foundation - Fortress Europe (HQ)

The necessity to maintain maximum profits in an economy that is stagnant or in crisis is translated into an attack on the conditions of the working class, who are made to bear the brunt while the bourgeoise safeguards its interests. Added to this is the strategy of divide and rule. Nevertheless, this recent migrant crisis is reopening a front that further complicates the unity of the bloc, which already has plenty of problems to deal with, such as Brexit; confrontation with its most vital ally, the US ; and an economic situation that to put it mildly looks bleak.

Imperialism is the direct cause for the suffering of thousands of migrants who, lacking any clear alternative, decide to risk their lives on the dangerous journey to Europe.

The military interventions in Syria, Libya, Iraq and Afghanistan have caused chaos, destruction, and the perishing of millions of innocent people, as well as the spreading and strengthening of fundamentalist groups. Safeguarding the individual thus becomes a challenge to the dominant framing of the collective security requirement.

In this climate of suspicion, asylum seekers are perceived as potential terrorists. Seeking asylum requires gaining security clearance, giving personal information, and being localisable at all times. Source: Pexels. The end of the Cold War, globalisation and the inception of Schengen have unsettled national and European institutions, eroding national sovereignty and calling notions of national identity into question. These processes have also fomented anxieties and irrational fears among European populations. In reaction, EU countries asserted their sovereignty over their territory by identifying and detaining unwanted entrants.

Measures were developed to enhance the exchange of information through the Schengen Information System , as well as police enforcement and judicial cooperation. The creation of a common economic market has had the spill-over effect of creating a common security project. Faced with the difficulty of maintaining open borders to those needing protection, whilst sealing them against unwanted individuals, the European Community developed the Dublin System.

Tear Down the Fortress: Europe and the Refugee Crisis | Harvard Political Review

In the absence of a common mechanism of allocation of responsibility, each state would be in charge of processing asylum claims made on its territory, in accordance with the Refugee Convention The Dublin arrangement is based on a hierarchy of criteria that determine which state is responsible for processing the application of an asylum seeker, 14 none of which are related to asylum per se but rather to migration criteria. In the first months after the arrival of an asylum seeker, the costs may outweigh the benefits.

In effect, the Dublin System urges states to efficiently protect their borders in order to avoid the burden of processing asylum claims. A combination of border control institutions and policies has been developed to facilitate such a task. The country of first entry remains in most cases responsible for processing and accommodation; Greece and Italy receive the largest numbers of people.

The burdening of the administrative and judicial system is such that Italy and Bulgaria suffer systemic flaws in asylum procedure and reception conditions, resulting in a halting of transfers to the first country of entry. The Refugee Convention states that protection-seekers should not be treated as illegal immigrants. Given that the system so often fails to meet the needs of asylum seekers, does it enhance security of the Schengen area by preventing the illegal movement of people? Tighter immigration restrictions make it more difficult for people to enter the territory legally, leading to an increase in the number of people attempting to cross the border illegally and often fomenting a market of smuggling operations.

Terrorist groups build their networks on pre-existing kinship networks and social bonds. These networks and clusters are exploited by terrorist groups as a recruitment pool. Nor should immigration laws be enforced against citizens of states with terrorist activities.

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The network in itself is not negative, it is the way it is exploited by terrorist organisations. A blanket policy restricting migration for members of communities that suffer from terrorism would have a number of negative consequences. There are several arguments to support the view that the arrest, registration and detention of immigrants has a negative impact on law enforcement.

First, it may feed into the vicious cycle of isolating communities, reinforcing stereotypes and misunderstanding between communities, and encouraging domestic xenophobia. Falsely linking immigration to terrorism might antagonise immigrant communities and curtail their cooperation.

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This link is encouraged by politicians faced with concerns about the diminishing importance of nation-states. However, to frame these concerns as being tied to migration does not succeed in addressing their root causes, nor does it propose any solutions. Rather, it seems that immigration is now the appointed scapegoat allowing politicians to rally significant support by exploiting the real fears of their communities.

Erlanger, Steve.

New York Times , March 22, Tsoukala, Anastassia. Guild, Elspeth.

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Security and Migration in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Polity, p.

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Refuge 20, no. Huysmans, Jef.