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E, making their living as serfs, brigands, half-citizens, and mercenaries. Ivrim , in that context, represents a low-standing socio-economic group who were part of the Israelites and many of whom were likely Israelites, but whose desperate economic plight caused them to live among the Philistines as war slaves or serfs. The law seeks to dispense special compassion towards them. The maximum six-year term allows them the possibility of rejoining Israelite society as equals, while their right to stay provides them with continuing economic security.

For traditional commentators, the strange choice was defended by noting that God had just taken Israel out of bondage, so it would only be right for them to free their future?

Security for Debt in Ancient Near Eastern Law

In fact, the rabbis even suggest that the requirement to free a Hebrew slave was given before Sinai, while the Israelites were still slaves in Egypt j. Rosh Hashanah , Nevertheless, the simplest explanation for this exceptional locution is that this law is not originally part of the Covenant Collection, but placed at its beginning secondarily. This explanation can be supported by a further linguistic observation. This analysis is only applicable to the Hebrew slave law as it appears in Exodus. In what modern scholars have come to call inner biblical exegesis, Deuteronomy has reinterpreted the original slave legislation and applied it to protect an Israelite free man or free woman who sells himself or is sold by a court, a purely intra-national affair.

Other differences also reflect more generosity than Exod.

It extended protection against permanent enslavement to an underprivileged group ethnically affiliated with and overlapping with the Israelites but not coterminous with them. Later, this law became part of the Covenant Collection, possibly because of its association with other slave stipulations appearing within it, such as that of selling a thief into bondage Exod. Please support us.

A History Of Ancient Near Eastern Law by Raymond Westbrook

Kasher, volume 17, Excursus 22, p. See, David P. Here, the statute of limitations works against the slave, and what started as a humane piece of legislation would turn into an oppressive one! See m. The former usage is rare, and occurs almost exclusively with a verb of the same root. They are not designated as slaves, as they are in Exodus, and the reason is because they only become slaves after they are sold. This also suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the Exodus and the Deuteronomy legislation.

See below. One might rightly entertain the suspicion that Ibn Ezra was drawn on logical grounds to their interpretation but felt obligated by the weight of tradition to defend the rabbinic position at all costs.

Was the Hebrew Sold into Slavery for Theft?

Be that as it may, Ibn Ezra concludes his disquisition by offering the traditional view that the slave in question is an Israelite freeman sold by the courts to make good on theft as per Exodus See, Mary P. The Torah, however, legislates fixed six-year terms. One wonders why the outcomes of these laws turned out so different and who would benefit from such legislation.

I work with the former assumption though this is not the place to discuss the pros and cons. Their justifications still look like cases of explanations after the fact. After citing another similar but obscure midrash, the anthologist and editor suggests that even in the years of oppression there were well-to-do Israelites who owned slaves!

It does imply, however, that Israelites already owned slaves. See, Bernard S.


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A person whose bondage is limited cannot be a slave. Sara Japhet; Jerusalem: Magnes, , 71, where she cites Alt and Jebsen but dismisses their suggestions. On the whole, these suggestions appear forced and have not generally been well received. The bold idea that Deuteronomy, or more precisely, Moses, created new law reinterpreting previous legislation is already adumbrated by such traditional exegetes as Nachmanides. Leviticus addresses itself to those seeking economic security by selling themselves to Israelites. As an aside, it is not clear that Leviticus forbids the acquisition of an Israelite who had been enslaved by foreigners.

Albert D. Friedberg holds a Ph.

He currently runs an investment firm in Toronto. I would like to receive new essays When published Before Shabbat. Torah Portion. This Week's Torah Portion. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy.

Making Sense of the Romans: Polybius and the Greek Perspective

Rosh Hashanah Rosh Hashanah. Yom Kippur Yom Kippur. Sukkot Sukkot. Simchat Torah Simchat Torah. Chanukah Chanukah. Purim Purim. This thesis gives us a better knowledge of Iltani and her entourage, clarifies some aspects of their life and of the history of the kingdom they were living in. Another interest of this study is the description of the daily life of a high rank woman from Upper Mesopotamia during the Old Babylonian period, which helps to improve our understanding of the place of women in that society.

Title : Rova, E. Keywords : Caucasus - Anatolia - archaeology - relations - Ancient Near East - 5th millenium BC - 1st millenium BC Eurasian steppes - surveys - chronology - economy - social organisation - technology - trade - long-distance trade - raw materials - artefacts - archaeometallurgy - landscape archaeology.

Abstract : 35 papers, originally presented by an international group of researchers at a conference held in Venice in January , present the results of the last 20 years of archaeological research about the pre-classical cultures of the Caucasus and Anatolia, and analyse the latter in the wider framework of their changing relations with those of the Ancient Near East and of the Eurasian steppes. The volume covers a wide chronological span - from the late 5th to the early 1st millennium BC, and includes contributions about a wide range of topics reports of archaeological excavations and surveys, chronology, economy, social organisation of the ancient populations, technology, long-distance exchange of raw materials and artefacts, archaeometallurgy, landscape archaeology, etc.

According to the most recent developments of research, these are investigated in a remarkably interdisciplinary perspective.

The participation to the conference of well-recognised experts working not only in different countries of the Southern Caucasus and in Anatolia in present-day Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey but also in the North-Caucasian republics of the present-day Russian Federation offered a rare opportunity to compare and discuss recent trends of archaeological research in these different regions.

Therefore, this volume represents a fundamental contribution to both Near Eastern and Caucasian Archaeology. In doing so, the author uses archaeological excavations, surveys, and textual evidence from both Urartian and Assyrian sources, as well as original ethnographic observations, within the context of the geographical setting of the Urartu Kingdom.

This book investigates various aspects of the Urartian Kingdom from its economic resources and the movement of commodities agriculture, animal husbandry, metallurgy, trade, etc. Title : Kertai, D. Abstract : Sixteen contributions on cultural history, archaeological and textual remains of the Ancient Near East are devoted to the Assyriologist F. Wiggermann from Amsterdam. Dining and drinking in ritual, ceremonial and everyday contexts are considered.

Black dogs and Seven demons are given attention, as well as Babylonian whirlwinds, Assyrian crown princes and the origin of maps.

Culture and History of the Ancient Near East

Title : Friedrich, J. Abstract : Bd. Keywords : literary disputation - disputation poems - wisdom literature - discussions - animals - trees - poems - parodies - intertextuality. Using intertextual parallels and comparison with similar works in other literatures, he espouses a new classification of the Babylonian disputation poems as parodies.

https://ywudityxetaw.ga After examining neighbouring traditions of literary disputation, he argues that the Babylonian poems influenced them, and that some may have been translated from Akkadian to Aramaic, from Aramaic and Syriac to Arabic.